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Joomla is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) for publishing web content. It is built on a model–view–controller web application framework that can be used independently of the CMS.

Joomla is written in PHP, and stores data in a MySQL, MS SQL, or PostgreSQL database,and includes features such as page caching, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, news flashes, blogs, polls, search, and support for language internationalization.

As of February 2014, Joomla has been downloaded over 50 million times. Over 7,700 free and commercial extensions are available from the official Joomla! Extension Directory, and more are available from other sources. It is estimated to be the second most used content management system on the Internet after WordPress.

Joomla extensions extend the functionality of Joomla websites. Five types of extensions may be distinguished: components, modules, plugins, templates, and languages.Each of these extensions handles a specific function.

Components are the largest and most complex extensions. Most components have two parts: a site part and an administrator part. Every time a Joomla page loads, one component is called to render the main page body. Components produce the major portion of a page because a component is driven by a menu item.

Plugins are advanced extensions and are, in essence, event handlers. In the execution of any part of Joomla, a module or a component, an event may be triggered. When an event is triggered, plugins that are registered to handle that event execute. For example, a plugin could be used to block user-submitted articles and filter text. The line between plugins and components can sometimes be a little fuzzy. Sometimes large or advanced plugins are called components even though they don’t actually render large portions of a page. An SEF URL extension might be created as a component, even though its functionality could be accomplished with just a plugin.

Templates describe the main design of a Joomla website. While the CMS manages the website content, templates determine the style or look and feel and layout of a site.

Languages are very simple extensions that can either be used as a core part or as an extension. Language and font information can also be used for PDF or PSD to Joomla conversions.

[source: wikipedia]